professor of welding, Grand Rapids Community College
(Grand Rapids, Michigan)
You have put a fair amount of work into the question of uphill vs. downhill GMAW welding, and your results are very reasonable. It might help you to compare the uphill GMAW welding to the same technique used in 7018 uphill welding, as they are done the same. The terms vertical up and vertical down are nonstandard terms (AWS A3.0) and the proper terms are uphill and downhill.
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